Nephromopsis rugosa Asahina
Nomenclatural data
J. Jap. Bot. 11: 12, 1935.
Type: Japan, Prov. Musasi, Mt. Kobusi, Asahina, 22.07.1933 (DUKE, isotype). Synonym: Cetraria  rugosa (Asahina) M. Satô, in Nakai & Honda, Nova Flora Japonica 5: 46, 1939.
Morphology
Thallus foliose, up to 20 cm in diameter, with rounded lobes up to 2.5 cm wide; upper surface yellowish or glaucous olive, often with a significant green tinge, remarkably regularly reticulated; medulla white; lower surface light brown, yellowish or whitish, strongly reticulated; pseudocyphellae on the lower side in the form of minute flat white spots located mainly on ridges. Rhizines sparse. Pycnidia marginal and laminal, on the black emergent projections, which are often situated along the ridges of the upper surface. Pycnoconidia bifusiform, 5 x 1-1,5 µm. Apothecia marginal on the lower side of the thallus, rounded or reniform, up to 20 mm in diameter, disc brown, faced upwards. Exciple three-layered. Asci 35-40 x 10 µm, axial body 4 µm, ascospores oblong, 7-9 x 3-5 µm.
Chemistry
Usnic acid in the cortex; two chemotypes: I - olivetoric acid; II -  physodic and oxyphysodic acids, additionally fatty acids (+/-) in the medulla. Medulla C+ red in chemotyp I, C-, KC+ red in chemotype II.
Remarks
N. rugosa can be morphologically recognized by its significantly reticulated thallus which often has a characteristic greenish tinge. Spot tests with C and KC are also of great help.
Ecology and distribution
Russian Far East, Japan; Mongolia (Schubert & Klement, 1971); corticolous on coniferous (Abies, Larix, Picea) or deciduous trees (Quercus) in forests between 700–1700 m elevation.
Literature
Randlane, T. & Saag, A. 1992. | Randlane, T. & Saag, A. 1998. |Randlane, T. & Saag, A. 2004. | Randlane, T., Saag, A. & Obermayer, W. 2001. | Randlane, T., Saag, A., Thell, A. & Kärnefelt, I. 1994. | Randlane, T., Thell, A., & Saag, A. 1995. | Thell, A., Randlane, T., Saag, A. & Kärnefelt, I. 2005.
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